Neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus: a systematic review


Forced swimming is a common exercise method used for its low cost and easy management, as seen in studies with the hippocampus. Since it is applied for varied research purposes many protocols are available with diverse aspects of physical intensity, time and periodicity, which produces variable outcomes. In the present study, we performed a systematic review to stress the neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus. Behavior, antioxidant levels, neurotrophins and inflammatory markers were the main topics examined upon the swimming effects. Better results among these analyses were associated with forced exercise at moderate intensity with an adaptation period and the opposite for continuous exhausting exercises with no adaptation. On further consideration, a standard swimming protocol is necessary to reduce variability of results for each scenario investigated about the impact of the forced swimming on the hippocampus.
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